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Today's Top Science News

Today's Top Science News

Mild COVID-19 infection is very unlikely to cause lasting heart damage
Mild Covid-19 infection is very unlikely to cause lasting damage to the structure or function of the heart, according to a study led by UCL (University College London) researchers and funded by the British Heart Foundation (BHF) and Barts Charity.

Switch of breast tumors to HER2-low in recurrence may provide greater therapeutic options
The finding that breast tumours can evolve to express low HER2 potentially widens the number of patients who can benefit from new investigational agents, typically novel antibody-drug conjugate therapies, that are currently in clinical trials for HER2-low tumours.

Vegetarians have healthier levels of disease markers than meat-eaters
Vegetarians appear to have a healthier biomarker profile than meat-eaters, and this applies to adults of any age and weight, and is also unaffected by smoking and alcohol consumption, according to a new study in over 166,000 UK adults, being presented at this week's European Congress on Obesity (ECO), held online this year.

Most comprehensive studies to date find 'insufficient evidence' to support herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss
The first global review of complementary medicines (herbal and dietary supplements) for weight loss in 16 years--combining 121 randomised placebo-controlled trials including nearly 10,000 adults--suggests that their use cannot be justified based on the current evidence. The findings are presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity.

Study supports recommendations to avoid pregnancy for at least 12 months after obesity surgery
A study presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (held online, 10-13 May) supports recommendations to avoid pregnancy for 12 months after bariatric (obesity) surgery due to an association with adverse outcomes in pregnancy including an elevated risk of preterm birth.

The legume family tree
The most comprehensive study of the family tree for legumes, the plant family that includes beans, soybeans, peanuts, and many other economically important crop plants, reveals a history of whole-genome duplications.

Sleep disorders tally $94.9 billion in health care costs each year
Sleep disorders are associated with significantly higher rates of health care utilization including more doctors visits and prescriptions, placing an additional $94.9 billion in costs each year to the U.S. Health care system.

Stop the genetic presses!
A bacterial protein helps to stop transcription--the process of making RNA copies of DNA to carry out the functions of the cell--by causing the cellular machinery that transcribes the DNA to pause at the appropriate spots in the genome.

Archaeologists pinpoint population for the Greater Angkor region
Long-running archaeological research, boosted by airborne lidar sensing and machine-learning algorithms, finds that Cambodia's Greater Angkor region was home to 700,000-900,000 people. The new estimate, made possible by a study designed at the University of Oregon, is the first for the entire 3,000-square-kilometer low-density region.

New study examines social network's relation to binge drinking among adults
Study examines neighborhood and social network relation to adult binge drinking.

New research sets stage for development of salmonella vaccine
Researchers with the University of Florida have developed a novel method for priming the immune system to fight salmonella infection.

The structure of DNA is found to be actively involved in genome regulation
This new form of regulation highlights its potential involvement in fundamental cellular processes that require profound changes in gene expression programmes, such as cell differentiation or reprogramming, as well as tumour transformation and progression.

Latest peer-reviewed research: Immediate global ivermectin use will end COVID-19 pandemic
After the most comprehensive review to date, a panel of leading medical experts conclude that ivermectin should be systematically and globally adopted for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

How viruses and bacteria can reach drinking water wells
Induced bank filtration is a key and well-established approach to provide drinking water supply to populated areas located along rivers or lakes and with limited access to groundwater resources. It is employed in several countries worldwide, with notable examples in Europe, the United States, and parts of Africa. Contamination of surface waters poses a serious threat to attaining drinking water standards.

Skoltech scientists find a way to make pultrusion faster
A research team from the Skoltech Center for Design, Manufacturing and Materials (CDMM) studied the effects of processing additives - aluminum hydroxide and zinc stearate - on the polymerization kinetics of thermosets used in pultrusion.

Why hotter clocks are more accurate
A new experiment shows that the more energy consumed by a clock, the more accurate its timekeeping.This is the first time that a measurement has been made of the entropy - or heat loss - generated by a minimal clock tens of nanometers thick and 1.5 millimeters long. Understanding the thermodynamic cost involved in timekeeping is a central step along the way in the development of future technologies, as systems approach the quantum realm.

New innovation successfully treats neonatal hypothermia
Neonatal hypothermia -- which occurs when an infant's core body temperature falls below the normal range needed to maintain health -- contributes to approximately one million deaths each year, and countless cases of stunted growth, almost exclusively in low- and middle-income countries. To address this common but preventable condition, researchers from Boston Children's Hospital, engineers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and colleagues in Rwanda developed the Dream Warmer, a low cost, reusable non-electric infant warmer to prevent and treat hypothermia.

Can federated learning save the world?
Training the artificial intelligence models that underpin web search engines, power smart assistants and enable driverless cars, consumes megawatts of energy and generates worrying carbon dioxide emissions. But new ways of training these models are proven to be greener.

Damage to white matter is linked to worse cognitive outcomes after brain injury
A new University of Iowa study challenges the idea that gray matter (the neurons that form the cerebral cortex) is more important than white matter (the myelin covered axons that physically connect neuronal regions) when it comes to cognitive health and function. The findings may help neurologists better predict the long-term effects of strokes and other forms of traumatic brain injury.

Losing an only child is more devastating than losing a spouse, according to study of Chinese parents
Which wound cuts deeper: the loss of an only child or loss of a spouse? A new study led by researchers at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing and Fudan University suggests that Chinese parents find the loss of an only child to be approximately 1.3 times as psychologically distressing than the loss of a spouse.

Why is COVID-19 so hard to treat? Growing evidence points to unique infectious profile
A comprehensive review into what we know about COVID-19 and the way it functions suggests the virus has a unique infectious profile, which explains why it can be so hard to treat and why some people experience so-called "long-COVID". There is growing evidence that the virus infects both the upper and lower respiratory tracts - unlike "low" or "high" pathogenic" human coronavirus sub-species, which typically settle in one or the other.

Too much, too little or just right: WVU researchers study proper 'dosing' of telehealth
In a new project, WVU researchers completed a systematic review of studies that dealt with telehealth and chronic conditions. They found that--in general--telehealth services benefitted patients more if they continued for about a year, rather than ending after six months or so.

New study explores functionality in aquatic ecosystems
The functions of water-dominated ecosystems can be considerably influenced and changed by hydrological fluctuation. The varying states of redox-active substances are of crucial importance here. Researchers at the University of Bayreuth have discovered this, in cooperation with partners from the Universities of Tübingen and Bristol and the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Halle-Leipzig.

18.5 million year old vine fossil identified as new species
An 18.5 million-year-old fossil found in Panama provides evidence of a new species and is the oldest reliable example of a climbing woody vine known as a liana from the soapberry family. The discovery sheds light on the evolution of climbing plants.

Overcoming tab overload
A research team at Carnegie Mellon University recently completed the first in-depth study of browser tabs in more than a decade. They found that many people struggle with tab overload, an underlying reason being that while tabs serve a variety of functions, they often do so poorly.

Migratory songbirds climb to extreme altitudes during daytime
Great reed warblers normally migrate by night during its month-long migration from northern Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa. However, researchers have now discovered that during the few occasions when it continues to fly during daytime, it flies at extremely high altitudes (up to 6300 meters). One possible explanation for this unexpected and consistent behaviour could be that the birds want to avoid overheating. The study is published in Science.

Consumption of pornography is widespread among young Internet users
A new survey shows that websites dedicated to pornography are popular among 16- and 17-year-olds. But social media are playing also a prominent role.

How bullying and obesity can affect girls' and boys' mental health
Depressive symptoms are more common in teenage girls than in their male peers. However, boys' mental health appears to be affected more if they suffer from obesity. Irrespective of gender, bullying is a considerably greater risk factor than overweight for developing depressive symptoms. These conclusions are drawn by researchers at Uppsala University who monitored adolescents for six years in a questionnaire study, now published in the Journal of Public Health.

Some meat eaters disgusted by meat
Some meat eaters feel disgusted by meat, according to a new study.

Breaching the blood-brain barrier to deliver precious payloads
RNA-based drugs may change the standard of care for many diseases, making personalized medicine a reality. So far these cost-effective, easy-to-manufacture drugs haven't been very useful in treating brain tumors and other brain disease. But a team of researchers at Georgia Tech and Emory University has shown that a combination of ultrasound and RNA-loaded nanoparticles can temporarily open the protective blood-brain barrier, allowing the delivery of potent medicine to brain tumors.

Study finds racial disparities in concussion symptom knowledge among college athletes
Among collegiate football players and other athletes, Black athletes recognize fewer concussion-related symptoms than their White counterparts, reports a study in the May/June issue of the Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation (JHTR). The official journal of the Brain Injury Association of America, JHTR is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

In the spotlight: Successful synthesis of perovskite visible-light-absorbing semiconductor material
Narrow-gap semiconductors with the ability to use visible light have garnered significant interest thanks to their versatility. Now, scientists in Japan have developed and characterized a new semiconductor material for application in process components stimulated by light. The findings have, for the first time, suggested a new way to reduce the band gap in cheaper and non-toxic tin-based oxide semiconductors for efficient light-based applications.

With bacteria against coral bleaching
Coral bleaching, which is becoming stronger and more frequent due to heat stress, has already wiped out corals at many locations globally. With the help of a microbiome-targeting strategy developed by an international team led by GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, it could become feasible to help protect corals from heat stress.

Essential virulence proteins of corn smut discovered
Plant pathogen needs membrane-bound protein complex to be virulent

How we retrieve our knowledge about the world
In order to find our way in the world, we classify it into concepts, such as "telephone". Until now, it was unclear how the brain retrieves these when we only encounter the word and don't perceive the objects directly. Scientists at the German MPI CBS have now developed a model of how the brain processes abstract knowledge. They found that depending on which features one concentrates on, the corresponding brain regions go into action.

Study helps to better understand the link between indoor and outdoor air quality
A new study finds that the indoor aerosol species are primarily from outdoor air exchange.

Soybean and linseed oils added to cows' diet improve the quality of milk
Brazilian researchers show that feed supplementation improves fatty acid profile of milk and promotes a healthier omega-6/omega-3 ratio.

The African wild dog: An ambassador for the world's largest terrestrial conservation area
The world's largest terrestrial conservation area is located in southern Africa and covers 520,000 square kilometers spanning five countries. A study from the University of Zurich now shows that the endangered African wild dog mostly remains within the boundaries of the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA) when dispersing, thus highlighting the relevance of such a large-scale conservation initiative for maintaining key wildlife corridors of threatened species.

Exercise can help support recovery of patients with lasting COVID symptoms, study finds
Patients with lasting symptoms of COVID-19 who completed a six week, supervised rehabilitation programme demonstrated significant improvements in exercise capacity, respiratory symptoms, fatigue and cognition.

Distinct cell-to-cell communication processes controlled differently
Cells talk to each other to coordinate nutrition, waste removal, energy use, and, in some cases, disease progression. The cells that line the surfaces of organs or specific tissues, called epithelial cells, appear to speak two different languages - one for either side of the cell, according to a new study by researchers based in Japan.

The first hydroxide conductivity in anion conducting polymer thin films
Researchers from Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST) have successfully established a new humidity in situ measurements for anion conducting polymer thin films.

New weather warning gauge
Australia, the driest inhabited continent, is prone to natural disasters and wild swings in weather conditions - from floods to droughts, heatwaves and bushfires. Now two new Flinders University studies of long-term hydro-climatic patterns provide fresh insights into the causes of the island continent's strong climate variability which affect extreme wet or dry weather and other conditions vital to water supply, agriculture, the environment and the nation's future.

New antibody rationally designed for better tumor inhibition
Recently, Prof. XIE Can from the High Magnetic Field Laboratory of the Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (HFIPS), in a collaboration with Prof. YAN Xiyun's lab from the Institute of Biophysics, reported the structural basis of mAb AA98's inhibition on CD146-mediated endothelial cells (EC) activation and designed higher affinity monoclonal antibody HA98 for cancer treatment.

Breakthrough thanks to helices made of nickel
Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have for the first time been able to prove a long-predicted but as yet unconfirmed fundamental effect. In Faraday chiral anisotropy, the propagation characteristics of light waves are changed simultaneously by the natural and magnetic-field induced material properties of the medium through which the light travels. The researchers obtained proof that this is the case by conducting experiments using nickel helices at the nanometre scale.

Novel matrix-based slow-release urea improves crop production
A research team led by Prof. WU Yuejin from the Institute of Intelligent Machines of the Hefei Institutes of Physical Science developed a novel matrix-based slow-release urea (MSU) recently to improve nitrogen use efficiency in rice production, and they assessed the performances of it.

Possible origin of neuroblastoma in the adrenal glands discovered
Since the tumour cells of neuroblastoma resemble certain cells in the adrenal glands, a joint research group investigated the cellular origin of these cells and sympathetic neurons during the embryonic development of human adrenal glands. They discovered a previously unknown cell type that might potentially be the origin of the tumour cells.

A deeper understanding of how cells move and stick together
A new paper published in EPJ Plus by Raj Kumar Sadhu, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, takes a step towards a deeper understanding of how cells adhere to each other and their motility.

Discovery of huge Raman scattering at atomic point contact
Atomic-scale optical spectroscopy revealed huge Raman scattering when an atomic point contact is formed between a plasmonic silver tip and a single-crystal silicon surface. The huge Raman scattering allows to observe selectively surface phonons of the single-crystal silicon and to resolve the atomic-scale structures. Atomic point contact Raman scattering paves the way for ultrasensitive atomic-scale vibrational spectroscopy to investigate surface structures.

Turning a pancreatic cancer cell's addiction into a death sentence
Probing the unique biology of human pancreatic cancer cells in a laboratory has yielded unexpected insights of a weakness that can be used against the cells to kill them.

Emissions from human activity modify biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation
Scientists make recommendations for a more accurate assessment of controllable biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation and its contribution to the total SOA budget.

New study determines cystic fibrosis therapy is safe and effective for young children
Children ages two to five who have the most common form of cystic fibrosis have not had any modulator treatments available to them until recently. A new study authored by researchers at Children's Hospital Colorado and published May 6, 2021, in Lancet Respiratory Medicine shows that the CFTR modulator - lumacaftor/ivacaftor - can be safe and well-tolerated for this age range for up to 120 weeks, allowing younger children to begin proactive treatment of CF.

Cutting-edge: New and improved drug to counter spinal anesthesia blues during C-sections
Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section deliveries can cause the mother's blood pressure to drop. To prevent this, physicians routinely administer certain drugs, of which the most common one can lead to undesirable complications in both the mother and the baby. A new study in Chinese Medical Journal shows how a more recent drug that is gaining in use could be the better alternative in terms of reduced complications and also benefit the baby's neurodevelopment.

Navigating the COVID-19 crisis to prevent pressure injuries: Learning health system helped one hospital adapt and update care in real time
Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare systems scrambled to modify patient care processes - particularly when it came to strategies aimed at reducing the risk of hospital-related complications. A look at how one hospital applied its learning health system (LHS) framework to respond to a COVID-19-related increase in hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) is presented in the May/June Journal for Healthcare Quality (JHQ), the peer-reviewed journal of the National Association for Healthcare Quality (NAHQ).

Hologram experts can now create real-life images that move in the air
They may be tiny weapons, but Brigham Young University's holography research group has figured out how to create lightsabers -- green for Yoda and red for Darth Vader, naturally -- with actual luminous beams rising from them.

Winning gene combination takes all
Researchers have traced the remaining last steps of the biological pathway that gives oats resistance to the deadly crop disease take-all.

Having a ball: New English Premier League soccer ball more stable, drags more
University of Tsukuba researchers tested a new Nike soccer ball used in the English Premier League with a wind tunnel. They found that its aerodynamic properties make it more stable in flight, at the cost of total distance. This work may lead to improvements in sports equipment design.

Algorithms show accuracy in gauging unconsciousness under general anesthesia
Machine learning software advances could help anesthesiologists optimize drug dose, potentially improving patient outcomes.

Alzheimer Europe calls for people with dementia and carers to be prioritized for vaccine
In a new position statement, Alzheimer Europe has issued a call for prioritization of people with dementia and their carers in national COVID-19 vaccination strategies, urging governments to recognize the disproportionate effect of the pandemic on these groups.

A bridge from classroom to providing actual patient care: A study of the Regenstrief tEMR
A new study presents the functions and application of the novel, scalable Regenstrief teaching electronic medical record (tEMR) platform which contains a unique, large, anonymized patient database enabling health professions students to learn how to use health information technology (HIT) to best manage the complex issues presented by real-world patients.

What consumers mean when they say your products are authentic
Knowing what consumers mean by "authenticity" can help marketers deliver it in their products and services.

The Lancet Rheumatology: Largest study to date confirms non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications do not result in worse COVID-19 outcomes
The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, does not lead to higher rates of death or severe disease in patients who are hospitalised with COVID-19, according to a new observational study of more than 72,000 people in the UK published in The Lancet Rheumatology journal.

Discovery of a new genetic cause of hearing loss illuminates how inner ear works
A gene called GAS2 plays a key role in normal hearing, and its absence causes severe hearing loss, according to a study led by researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Artificial intelligence makes great microscopes better than ever
Collaboration between deep learning experts and microscopy experts leads to an significantly improved data-intensive light-field microscopy method by using AI and ground-truthing it with light-sheet microscopy. The result is the power of light-field microscopy available to biologists in near real time vs. days or weeks, AND the expansion of biologists' ability to use this microscopy for many things more things requiring the most detailed observation.

Hand dermatitis in two thirds of public due to stringent hand hygiene during COVID
The dermatological impact of COVID-19 is a burning topic at EADV's 2021 Spring Symposium. New research presented today highlights the effect that stringent hand hygiene during the pandemic has had on hand skin health.

The role of the gut microbiota in inflammatory skin diseases
Findings presented at today's EADV 2021 Spring Symposium suggest that an imbalance in gut microbiota (dysbiosis), could play a significant role in the progression of inflammatory skin disease, Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS). HS is a painful, long-term skin condition, with a chronic and relapsing nature that significantly impacts patients' quality of life.

Systemic inequalities driving exposure to high indoor air pollution in London
Systemic inequalities mean that low-income households in London are more likely to be exposed to higher levels of indoor air pollution, according to a report by UCL researchers.The biggest factors are the quality of housing and the characteristics of the surrounding environment, taking location and levels of outdoor air pollution into account - factors beyond occupants' control.

Rare genetic disease caused by mutations in protein that controls RNA metabolism
Mutations in a protein called GEMIN5 cause developmental delay and loss of coordination in young children.

Learning on the fly
Informatics experts at the University of Sussex have developed a new computational model that demonstrates a long sought after link between insect and mammalian learning.

Head to toe: study reveals brain activity behind missed penalty kicks
A new study is the first to examine the brain activity behind successful and missed penalty kicks under real-world conditions. Successful kicks involved activation of "useful" areas of the brain, such as the motor cortex which is involved in movement. For missed kicks, areas involved in long-term thinking were more active, suggesting players were overthinking the consequences of the shot. Strikingly, the findings could help soccer players, and others, to perform better under pressure.

Researchers develop artificial intelligence that can detect sarcasm in social media
Properly understanding and responding to customer feedback on Twitter, Facebook and other social media platforms is crucial for brands, and it may have just gotten a little easier thanks to research out of the University of Central Florida in Orlando.

Supernovae twins open up new possibilities for precision cosmology
Cosmologists have found a way to double the accuracy of measuring distances to supernova explosions - one of their tried-and-true tools for studying the mysterious dark energy that is making the universe expand faster and faster.

Small apoptotic bodies: Nirvana, birth and death
Scientists from Nanjing University and University of Macau have discovered nano-scaled apoptotic bodies (ABs) as a new brain-targeting drug carrier, bringing new promise for the Parkinson's Disease as well as other brain diseases.

Tropical ginger treatment for blocking inflammation
Researchers from Nara Institute of Science and Technology have found that a compound from a tropical ginger plant could help treat and prevent inflammatory diseases. Immune cells from mice produced lower levels of crucial inflammatory markers when treated with this compound, called ACA. ACA also helped block these signals in a mouse model of colitis. This work provides vital information in the fight against diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and even COVID-19.

Scrap for cash before coins
How did people living in the Bronze Age manage their finances before money became widespread? Researchers from the Universities of Göttingen and Rome have discovered that bronze scrap found in hoards in Europe circulated as a currency. These pieces of scrap - which might include swords, axes, and jewellery broken into pieces - were used as cash in the late Bronze Age, and in fact complied with a weight system used across Europe. Results were published in Journal of Archaeological Science.

Scientists discover how to trick cancer cells to consume toxic drugs
New research led by a team at Massachusetts General Hospital points to a promising strategy to boost tumors' intake of cancer drugs, thereby increasing the effectiveness of chemotherapy treatments.

Penn study reveals how opioid supply shortages shape emergency department prescribing behaviors
A new study published in the Journal of Medical Toxicology reveals that opioid prescribing behavior can also be decreased by external factors, such as a supply shortage. In this case, the shortage was of parenteral morphine and hydromorphone, as a result of supply chain disruptions caused by Hurricane Maria in 2018.

Molecular analysis identifies key differences in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients
A team of researchers from UCLA, Cedars-Sinai and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation has developed a first-of-its-kind molecular catalog of cells in healthy lungs and the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis.

Swiping, swabbing elevates processing plant food safety
By swiping surfaces in commercial food processing plants with specially designed rapid-testing adenosine triphospate (ATP) swabs - which produce a light similar to the glow of fireflies in the presence of microorganisms - spoilage and foodborne illness could diminish, according to a new study from Cornell University food scientists.

Transforming atmospheric carbon into industrially useful materials
Plants are unparalleled in their ability to capture carbon from the air, but this benefit is temporary. Researchers have proposed a more permanent, and even useful, fate for this captured carbon by turning plants into a valuable industrial material called silicon carbide (SiC). A new study from Salk scientists quantifies this process with more detail than ever before.

Feeling younger buffers older adults from stress, protects against health decline
People who feel younger have a greater sense of well-being, better cognitive functioning, less inflammation, lower risk of hospitalization and even live longer than their older-feeling peers. A study published by the American Psychological Association suggests one potential reason for the link between subjective age and health: Feeling younger could help buffer middle-aged and older adults against the damaging effects of stress.

PCB contamination in Icelandic orcas: a matter of diet
A new study from McGill University suggests that some Icelandic killer whales have very high concentrations of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in their blubber. But it seems that other orcas from the same population have levels of PCBs that are much lower. It mainly depends on what they eat.

Why do some neurons degenerate and die in Alzheimer's disease, but not others?
Researchers at Gladstone Institutes have uncovered molecular clues that help explain what makes some neurons more susceptible than others in Alzheimer's disease. In a study published in the journal Nature Neuroscience, the scientists present evidence that neurons with high levels of the protein apolipoprotein E (apoE) are more sensitive to degeneration, and that this susceptibility is linked to apoE's regulation of immune-response molecules within neurons.

Pandemic-driven telehealth proves popular at safety net health system
As state and federal authorities decide whether to continue reimbursing for telehealth services that were suddenly adopted last spring in response to the coronavirus pandemic, a new study out of UC San Francisco has found that clinicians in the San Francisco Health Network (SFHN) overwhelmingly support using these services for outpatient primary care and specialty care visits.

Researchers develop mathematical model predicting disease spread patterns
A team of environmental engineers, alerted by the unusual wealth of data published regularly by county health agencies throughout the pandemic, began researching new methods to describe what was happening on the ground in a way that does not require obtaining information on individuals' movements or contacts. In a recently published paper, they presented their results: a model that predicts where the disease will spread from an outbreak, in what patterns and how quickly.

Story tip from Johns Hopkins experts on COVID-19
Story tip from Johns Hopkins experts on COVID-19.

Physicists unveil the condensation of liquid light in a semiconductor one-atom-thick
An international team of physicists has shown experimentally for the first time how a Bose-Einstein condensate - tens of thousands of quanta of 'liquid light' - is formed in the thinnest monatomic film of a semiconductor crystal. The team includes the head of the Spin Optics Laboratory at St Petersburg University, Professor Alexey Kavokin. This discovery will help create new types of lasers capable of producing qubits - the main integral parts of quantum computers of the future.

Researchers develop new metal-free, recyclable polypeptide battery that degrades on demand
The introduction of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries has revolutionized technology as a whole, leading to major advances in consumer goods across nearly all sectors. Battery-powered devices have become ubiquitous across the world. While the availability of technology is generally a good thing, the rapid growth has led directly to several key ethical and environmental issues surrounding the use of Li-ion batteries.

Skin and immune cells coordinate defenses against assault
As the human body's largest organ, the skin is responsible for protecting against a wide range of possible infections on all fleshy surfaces, from head to toe. So how exactly does the skin organize its defenses against such an array of threats?

In graphene process, resistance is useful
Rice scientists adapt laser-induced graphene to make conductive patterns from standard photoresist material for consumer electronics and other applications.

Surprising sand fly find yields new species of bacteria
Researchers made a surprising finding while examining areas where sand flies rear their young: a new species of bacteria that is highly attractive to pregnant sand flies. The findings could advance the production of ecologically safe baits or traps to reduce sand fly populations.

Cancer patients lonely and depressed during COVID
Loneliness and social isolation have been significant problems for the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic, but for cancer patients these issues were particularly acute, likely due to isolation and social distancing, according to a new UCSF study.

Organ transplant recipients remain vulnerable to COVID-19 even after second vaccine dose
In a study published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers show that although two doses of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 -- the virus that causes COVID 19 -- confers some protection for people who have received solid organ transplants, it's still not enough to enable them to dispense with masks, physical distancing and other safety measures.

Online learning doesn't improve student sleep habits, research suggests
New research from Simon Fraser University suggests that students learning remotely become night owls but do not sleep more despite the time saved commuting, working or attending social events.

Kidney cancer risks higher for Hispanic, Native Americans in Arizona
Dr. Ken Batai,has documented an increased risk of mortality among Arizona's Hispanic American and Native American kidney cancer patients.

Hollings researchers study SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in asymptomatic & symptomatic individuals
MUSC Hollings Cancer Center researchers screened more than 60,000 blood samples from symptomless individuals in the Southeastern U.S., finding that approximately 3% of the population is asymptomatic. These individuals had stronger antibody responses to COVID-19 versus symptomatic patients.

Protected by nanobrushes
The ability of antibodies to recognize specific cancer cells is used in oncology to specifically target those cells with small active agents. Research published in the journal Angewandte Chemie shows that scientists have now built a transport system that delivers even large protein-based drugs into cancer cells. This study demonstrates how proteins can arrive at their target intact, protected from destructive proteases by polymer brushes.

Ice core data show why, despite lower sulfur emissions in US and Western Europe, air pollution is dropping more slowly
Ice core data from Greenland shows why air pollution is reducing slower than sulfur emissions reductions. As cloud droplets become less acidic, the chemical reaction that turns sulfur dioxide into sulfate aerosol gets more efficient. These results can improve the models that project air quality and climate change.

COVID-19 vaccine is associated with fewer asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital COVID-19 screening and vaccination program for employees offers early evidence that vaccine protects against asymptomatic infection, which has fueled the pandemic.

Asthma attacks plummeted among Black and hispanic/latinx individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic
Asthma attacks account for almost 50 percent of the cost of asthma care which totals $80 billion each year in the United States. Asthma is more severe in Black and Hispanic/Latinx patients, with double the rates of attacks and hospitalizations as the general population.

By age 10, retinoblastoma patients' learning and life skills rebound
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital researchers studied how retinoblastoma survivors fared years later at home and at school.



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