Loading... Please wait...

Today's Top Science News

Today's Top Science News

Nanoparticles can make home refrigeration more accessible for low-income households
Power consumption of a home refrigerator can be cut by 29% while improving cooling capacity. Researchers replaced environmentally-unfriendly R134a refrigerant with the more energy-efficient R600a. They dosed R600a with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanoparticles. Drop-in refrigerant replacement in the field by trained technicians is possible, says an engineer from the University of Johannesburg. This test of nanoparticle-dosed refrigerants is a first of its kind and can help make home refrigeration more accessible for vulnerable families.

The fight goes on: Clinical trial shows promising new treatment for rare blood cancer
Although lymphoma is one of the most common types of blood cancer, it has a rare subtype for which no effective treatment regimens are known. For the first time, Nagoya University researchers and colleagues in Japan have conducted clinical trials for a new treatment protocol and report it to be quite promising.

Largest study of its kind of women in labor finds nitrous oxide safe, side effects rare
Researchers at the University of Colorado College of Nursing and the School of Medicine Department of Anesthesiology at the Anschutz Medical Campus found that the use of nitrous oxide (N2O) as a pain relief option for individuals in labor is safe for newborn children and laboring individual, and converting to a different form of pain relief such as an epidural or opioid is influenced by a woman's prior birth history and other factors.

RIT scientists develop method to help epidemiologists map spread of COVID-19
Rochester Institute of Technology scientists have developed a method they believe will help epidemiologists more efficiently predict the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Their new study, published in Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, outlines a solution to the SIR epidemic model, which is commonly used to predict how many people are susceptible to, infected by, and recovered from viral epidemics.

Oesophageal surgery: Quality increases with larger case volumes
Oesophageal surgery: quality increases with larger case volumes. Greater survival probabilities in hospitals where complex oesophageal surgery is performed more frequently.

How the coronavirus could be prevented from invading a host cell
How might the novel coronavirus be prevented from entering a host cell in an effort to thwart infection? A team of biomedical scientists has made a discovery that points to a solution. The scientists, led by Maurizio Pellecchia in the UC Riverside School of Medicine, report in the journal Molecules that two proteases -- enzymes that break down proteins -- located on the surface of host cells and responsible for processing viral entry could be inhibited.

Evolution of pandemic coronavirus outlines path from animals to humans
A team of scientists studying the origin of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that has caused the COVID-19 pandemic, found that it was especially well-suited to jump from animals to humans by shapeshifting as it gained the ability to infect human cells.

How well do Germans understand weather risks?
Germans have difficulty gauging the negative impact of weather conditions such as ground frost, heat, or UV radiation. This is one of the key results of a representative survey conducted by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, published in Weather, Climate, and Society. The study's authors advocate new impact forecasts that predict not only what the weather will be, but also what it will do.

A rising tide of marine disease? How parasites respond to a warming world
A recent study from the University of Washington explores the ways parasitism will respond to climate change, providing researchers new insights into disease transmission. The paper was published May 18 in the journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

SARS-CoV-2 possibly emerged from shuffling and selection of viral genes across different species
A combination of genetic shuffling and evolutionary selection of near-identical genetic sequences among specific bat and pangolin coronaviruses may have led to the evolution of SARS-CoV-2.

When COVID-19 meets flu season
As if the COVID-19 pandemic isn't scary enough, the flu season is not far away. How severe will the flu season be as it converges with the COVID-19 outbreak? What can we do to prepare? Dr. Benjamin Singer, a Northwestern Medicine pulmonologist who treats COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit, outlines the best defense against influenza, which also may protect against coronavirus.

Study: Paper-thin gallium oxide transistor handles more than 8,000 volts
University at Buffalo electrical engineers created a gallium oxide-based transistor that can handle more than 8,000 volts. The transistor could lead to smaller and more efficient electronic systems that control and convert electric power -- a field of study known as power electronics -- in electric cars, locomotives and airplanes. In turn, this could help improve how far these vehicles can travel.

A hormone -- plant style
Researchers from the Faculties of Chemistry and Biology at Bielefeld University have now found a method that might make the production of a biologically significant precursor of jasmonic acid more efficient and cheaper. Their innovation: they imitate how plants produce the hormone. The result is 12-OPDA, a central precursor of jasmonic acid. In the long term, it could also be a potential precur-sor for high-quality perfume. The researchers present their method today (29.05.2020) in the re-search journal Advanced Science.

Researchers develop new method to map cholesterol metabolism in brain
A team of researchers led by Swansea University have developed new technology to monitor cholesterol in brain tissue which could uncover its relation to neurodegenerative disease and pave the way for the development of new treatments.

Bangladeshi eggplant farmers reap rewards via genetics
Farmers in Bangladesh achieved significantly higher yields and revenues by growing insect-resistant, genetically engineered eggplant, a new Cornell study has found.

'Black nitrogen'
In the periodic table of elements there is one golden rule for carbon, oxygen, and other light elements. Under high pressures they have similar structures to heavier elements in the same group of elements. Only nitrogen always seemed unwilling to toe the line. However, high-pressure researchers of the University of Bayreuth have actually disproved this special status.

Assessing cancer diagnosis in children with birth defects
In this study, led by Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, researchers provide a better understanding of cancer risk in children with birth defects.

Study: Public health campaigns can do better on cannabis harm reduction
Researchers surveyed nearly 500 attendees at the 2019 Hash Bash in Ann Arbor, Michigan, to learn about cannabis enthusiasts' awareness of cannabis harm reduction strategies. The results indicate a need for better public health campaigns.

Combined cediranib and olaparib presents similar activity to standard of care treatment
Results of the NRG Oncology phase III clinical trial NRG-GY004 indicated that the addition of the investigational agent cediranib to olaparib and standard platinum-based chemotherapy did not improve progression-free survival (PFS) outcomes for women with platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer;, however, activity between the treatments were similar in patients.

Using brain imaging to demonstrate weaker neural suppression for those with autism
A University of Minnesota Medical School researcher recently published an article in Nature Communications that shows the differences in visual motion perception in autism spectrum disorder are accompanied by weaker neural suppression in the visual cortex of the brain.

Older men worry less than others about COVID-19
Older men may be at greater risk of contracting COVID-19 because they worry less about catching or dying from it, according to a new study by researchers at Georgia State University. This is a concern because older men are already more at risk of severe or fatal COVID-19 infections, and the study participants who were most worried about COVID-19 were also the most likely to have implemented protective behavior changes.

Trastuzumab combined with trimodality treatment does not improve outcomes for patients
Results of the NRG Oncology clinical trial RTOG 1010 indicated that the addition of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab to neoadjuvant trimodality treatment did not improve disease-free survival (DFS) outcomes for patient with HER2 overexpressing local and locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Paid sick leave mandates hold promise in containing COVID-19
Paid sick leave (PSL) mandates like those found in the federal government's Families First Coronavirus Response Act may be helping to slow the spread of COVID-19, according to a new study by health economists at Georgia State and Tulane universities.

New model predicts the peaks of the COVID-19 pandemic
This week in the journal Frontiers, researchers describe a single function that accurately describes all existing available data on active COVID-19 cases and deaths -- and predicts forthcoming peaks.

Trastuzumab achieves slight reduction in recurrence for women with HER2-positive DCIS
The addition of the monoclonal antibody therapy Trastuzumab to radiotherapy did not reach the protocol objective of a 36% reduction in the ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence rate for women with HER2-positive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on the NRG Oncology clinical trial NSABP B-43. The trial did find a statistically non-significant, modest (19%) reduction in the rate of recurrence among women that received trastuzumab, but this difference was not statistically significant.

Researchers conduct metabolite analysis of ALS patient blood plasma
High-throughput analysis of blood plasma could aid in identification of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The work sheds further light on a pathway involved in disease progression and appears to rule out an environmental neurotoxin as playing a role in ALS.

Watcher' tracks coronavirus in Cincinnati and beyond
As cases of COVID-19 soar two University of Cincinnati students develop an interactive dashboard that shows cases and deaths related to the novel coronavirus throughout the nation.

Adoptive T-cell therapy ADP-A2M4 targeting MAGE-A4 shows early activity in patients with advanced solid tumors
The adoptive T-cell therapy ADP-A2M4, which is engineered to express a T-cell receptor (TCR) directed against the MAGE-A4 cancer antigen, achieved responses in patients with multiple solid tumor types, including synovial sarcoma, head and neck cancer and lung cancer, according to results from a Phase I clinical trial led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Researchers examine data to identify optimal vasopressor treatment for rare type of stroke
Results of an Electronic Health Record (EHR) study assessing the most commonly used medications for raising blood pressure in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a rare type of stroke, have been published in Neurosurgical Focus by scientists at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).

Targeted therapy pralsetinib achieves high response rates in advanced cancers with RET gene fusions
The targeted therapy pralsetinib appears to have high response rates and durable activity in patients with a broad variety of tumors harboring RET gene fusions, according to results from the international Phase I/II ARROW trial, led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

COVID-19 patients who undergo surgery are at increased risk of postoperative death
Patients are at increased risk of dying after surgery if they contract COVID-19. Non-critical surgery should be postponed during COVID-19 outbreaks. Investment is urgently needed to increase safety of surgery during COVID-19 outbreaks.

Targeted therapy tepotinib for non-small cell lung cancer with MET exon 14 skipping mutation shows durable response
Patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the MET exon 14 (METex14) skipping mutation had a 46.5% objective response rate to the targeted therapy drug tepotinib, as shown in a study published today in the New England Journal of Medicine and presented at the 2020 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting ASCO20 Virtual Meeting (Abstract 9556 - Poster 322) by researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Researchers identify healthcare data defects, create software for easier defect detection
Researchers at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) have developed a method to investigate the quality of healthcare data using a systematic approach, which is based on creating a taxonomy for data defects thorough literature review and examination of data. Using that taxonomy, the researchers developed software that automatically detects data defects effectively and efficiently.

Scientists develop sorbent for purifying water from radioactive elements
Scientists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) in collaboration with colleagues from the Institute of Chemistry FEB RAS come up with a smart technology for the synthesis of sorbent based on a "tungsten bronze" compound powder (Na2WO4) aimed to purify industrial and drinking water from hazardous radionuclides cesium (137Cs), and strontium (90Sr), as well as for effective processing of liquid radioactive waste. A related article appears in the Journal of Materials Science.

Anesthesia's effect on consciousness solved, settling century-old scientific debate
How does general anesthesia cause loss of consciousness? Despite its 175-year-history of use by the U.S. medical system, science has been unable to definitively answer that question, until now. The lipid-based answer could open other brain mysteries.

Solution to century-old math problem could predict transmission of infectious diseases
A Bristol academic has achieved a milestone in statistical/mathematical physics by solving a 100-year-old physics problem -- the discrete diffusion equation in finite space.

Study: Integrating satellite and socioeconomic data to improve climate change policy
Bangladesh is on track to lose all of its forestland in the next 35-40 years, leading to a rise in CO2 emissions and subsequent climate change, researchers said. However, that is just one of the significant land-use changes that the country is experiencing. A new study uses satellite and census data to quantify and unravel how physical and economic factors drive land-use changes. Understanding this relationship can inform climate policy at the national scale in Bangladesh and beyond.

How toxic protein spreads in Alzheimer's disease
Toxic versions of the protein tau are believed to cause death of neurons of the brain in Alzheimer's disease. A new study published in Nature Communications shows that the spread of toxic tau in the human brain in elderly individuals may occur via connected neurons. The researchers could see that beta-amyloid facilitates the spread of toxic tau.

Better prepared for future crises
Although there were early warnings of an exponentially growing pandemic, most policymakers around the world were unprepared and reluctant to act when Covid-19 first spread from China around the world. In an article published in the Journal of Risk Research, Aengus Collins, Marie-Valentine Florin (both EPFL International Risk Governance Center) and IASS Scientific Director Ortwin Renn analyze the key factors and offer recommendations on how we can better prepare for future crises.

Please see special handling
A new study highlights the risks of pulmonary complications in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who undergo surgery, according to an observational study of 1,128 patients across 24 countries, published in The Lancet. The study was conducted between 1 January and 31 March 2020 and included data from hospitals mainly in Europe and America with ongoing SARS-CoV-2 infection outbreaks.

Fearful Great Danes provide new insights to genetic causes of fear
Professor Hannes Lohi's research group at the University of Helsinki has identified a new genomic region and anxiety-related candidate genes associated with fearfulness in dogs. Findings support their hypothesis that fearfulness and anxiety are hereditary traits in dogs, and there may be shared factors underlying anxiety in both humans and dogs.

Better outcomes, lower cost in first-ever oncology hospital at home evaluation
Researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) presented the first outcomes evaluation of an adult oncology hospital-at-home program today at the 2020 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting. The study evaluated patients participating in HCI's Huntsman at HomeTM. The data demonstrate strong evidence for this care model, showing improved patient outcomes, including reduced hospitalizations and decreased visits to the emergency department.

Astronomers predict bombardment from asteroids and comets in another planetary system
The planetary system around star HR8799 is remarkably similar to our Solar System. A research team led by astronomers from the University of Groningen and SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research has used this similarity to model the delivery of materials by asteroids, comets and other minor bodies within the system. Their simulation shows that the four gas planets receive material delivered by minor bodies, just like in our Solar System.

Limits on evolution revealed by statistical physics
What is and is not possible for natural evolution may be explained using models and calculations from theoretical physics, say researchers in Japan. To explain this the limits of evolution, researchers simplified the natural world to fit idealized physics models and searched for any mathematical structure within biological complexity.

Towards a climate neutral Europe: The land sector is key
Land use choices can have a significant impact on climate change mitigation and help meet the increased ambition foreseen by the 'European Green Deal'. It is time to step up efforts to quantify the land sector's carbon emissions and removals. A study, which includes the CMCC Foundation's participation, analyses the EU regulations in force on the subject, which to date still place limits on the contribution that the land use sector can make to achieving the Union's climate objectives.

Contamined soils determined root characteristics
University of Cordoba Professor Rafael Villar participated in a study on the variation of root traits among Mediterranean trees planted in metal-contaminated soil

Glucocorticoids are harmful in treating viral respiratory infections
Glucocorticoids, which are widely used as treatment in intensive care, can nearly quadruple the death rate of patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome. Researchers at the University of Turku, Finland, discovered the reason for the higher mortality. The findings are also important in the fight against COVID-19 disease.

Government's stimulus program to boost consumer spending
The world has been experiencing an unprecedented economic downturn due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A significant number of economic activities have shut down. With increasing unemployment, economists are devising and proposing economic measures that could help ensure a sustainable increase in consumer spending and circumvent a long-term economic recession. However, whether the proposed economic measures are going to provide a long-term solution to these problems remains a concern.

Growing evidence that minority ethnic groups in England may be at higher risk of COVID-19
Evidence available to date suggests that minority ethnic groups in England, particularly black and south Asian people, may be at increased risk of testing positive for Covid-19, compared to people from white British backgrounds, according to a study published in the open access journal BMC Medicine.

Immunotherapy for bowel cancer could change clinical practice
A large international trial involving UCL and University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (UCLH) has found that pembrolizumab, a form of immunotherapy, more than doubled the 'progression free survival' time of patients with a specific subtype of advanced bowel cancer, when compared with chemotherapy.

First cases of COVID-19 in New York City primarily from European and US sources
In New York City, the first confirmed COVID-19 cases arose mostly through untracked transmission of the virus from Europe and other parts of the United States, a new molecular epidemiology study of 84 patients reports.

Blood test as a potential new weapon in the fight to eliminate malaria
An international collaborative team from PROS Ehime University and CellFee Science, Japan; the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Australia; Pasteur Institute, France; and Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Switzerland developed a new diagnostic blood test which detects recent exposure to 'vivax' malaria. The new test can also identify people who may harbor dormant liver-stage malaria parasites, which can cause illness. This new diagnostic approach has the potential to enhance malaria surveillance and accelerate elimination.

Researchers develop experimental rapid COVID-19 test using nanoparticle technique
Scientists from the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) developed an experimental diagnostic test for COVID-19 that can visually detect the presence of the virus in 10 minutes. It uses a simple assay containing plasmonic gold nanoparticles to detect a color change when the virus is present. The test does not require the use of any advanced laboratory techniques, such as those commonly used to amplify DNA, for analysis.

Research explores the impact of invasive grasses on South Texas landscapes
Scientists writing for the journal Invasive Plant Science and Management say several exotic grass species once grown in South Texas for livestock forage and erosion control have expanded from the areas where they were planted and have become invasive. They now are reducing the region's biodiversity and the habitats available for wildlife.

Next frontier in bacterial engineering
A new technique overcomes a serious hurdle in the field of bacterial design and engineering. Researchers develop method to identify proteins that enable highly efficient bacterial design. Approach has potential to boost efforts in bacterial design to tackle infectious diseases, bacterial drug resistance, environmental cleanup and more.

Taking a deep look into animals
Advances in neuroscience research and microscopy: a new technique makes it possible to clear a wide variety of different animals, making them transparent and allowing researchers to look deep into their organs and nervous systems.

Using riboflavin, UV light reduces SARS-CoV-2 pathogens in plasma, whole blood
Researchers at Colorado State University used existing technologies to show that exposing the coronavirus to riboflavin and ultraviolet light reduces blood-borne pathogens in human plasma and whole-blood products.

Study charts developmental map of inner ear sound sensor in mice
A team of researchers has generated a developmental map of a key sound-sensing structure in the mouse inner ear. Scientists at the the NIH National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, and their collaborators analyzed data from 30,000 cells from mouse cochlea, the snail-shaped structure of the inner ear. The results provide insights into the genetic programs that drive the formation of cells important for detecting sounds and the underlying causes for some forms of inner ear hearing loss.

The most common organism in the oceans harbors a virus in its DNA
The most common organism in the world's oceans -- and possibly the whole planet -- harbors a virus in its DNA. This virus may have helped it survive and outcompete other organisms.

Dietary and physical activity intervention reduces LDL cholesterol level in children
An individualised and family-based physical activity and dietary intervention reduced the plasma LDL cholesterol concentration of primary school children, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows.

People more likely to accept nudges if they know how they work and how effective they are
The more people know about when and why behavioural interventions are being used and their effectiveness, the more likely they are to accept their use to change their behaviour.

New gut-brain link: How gut mucus could help treat brain disorders
Gut bacterial imbalance is linked with many neurological disorders. Now researchers have identified a common thread: changes in gut mucus. It's a new gut-brain connection that opens fresh paths for scientists searching for ways to treat brain disorders by targeting our 'second brain' - the gut.

Images in neurology: Brain of patient with COVID-19, smell loss
This case report describes a 25-year-old female radiographer with no significant medical history who had been working in a COVID-19 ward who presented with a mild dry cough that lasted for one day, followed by persistent severe anosmia (loss of smell) and dysgeusia (an impaired sense of taste).

Neuropathogenesis, neurologic manifestations of coronaviruses
Potential tissue targets and routes of entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the central nervous system and reported neurological complications of COVID-19 are identified in this narrative review.

Venous thrombosis among critically ill patients with COVID-19
A systematic assessment of deep vein thrombosis among patients in an intensive care unit in France with severe COVID-19 is reported in this case series.

Electronic health records fail to detect up to 33% of medication errors
Despite improvements in their performance over the past decade, electronic health records (EHRs) commonly used in hospitals nationwide fail to detect up to one in three potentially harmful drug interactions and other medication errors, according to scientists at University of Utah Health, Harvard University, and Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. In tests using simulated medical records, the researchers found that EHR systems consistently failed to detect errors that could injure or kill patients.

Nilotinib appears safe and affects biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease clinical trial
A Georgetown University Medical Center clinical trial investigating the cancer drug nilotinib in people with Alzheimer's disease finds that it is safe and well-tolerated, and researchers say the drug should be tested in a larger study to further determine its safety and efficacy as a potential disease-modifying strategy.

A roadmap for effective treatment of COVID-19
Researchers from the US Food and Drug Administration have reviewed the available scientific literature on COVID-19 and systematically outlined key immunological factors underlying COVID-19 disease severity. Based on these factors, the researchers indicate a range of approved and available drugs, as well as drugs currently under clinical investigation, as possible candidates for treatment.

Study reveals factors influencing outcomes in kidney cancer treated with immunotherapy
By analyzing tumors from patients treated with immunotherapy for advanced kidney cancer in three clinical trials, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists have identified several features of the tumors that influence their response to immune checkpoint inhibitor drugs.

New streamlined assay can improve prenatal detection of alpha-thalassemia
In a report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, published by Elsevier, researchers describe a rapid, accurate novel assay for nondeletional alpha-thalassemia genotyping based on one-step nested asymmetric PCR melting curve analysis, which may enhance prenatal diagnosis, newborn screening, and large-scale population screening.

Vision: Observing the world during childhood affects the rest of life
Much of what we will be as adults depends on the first years of life, on what we simply observe happening around us and not only on what we are taught explicitly. This also applies to the development of the visual system, according to a new SISSA study that, for the first time, has experimentally shown the importance of passive visual experience. The research, published on Science Advances, has also potential clinical and technological implications.

Heightened interaction between neolithic migrants and hunter-gatherers in Western Europe
This study reports new genome-wide data for 101 prehistoric individuals from 12 archaeological sites in today's France and Germany, dating from 7000-3000 BCE, and documents levels of admixture between expanding early Neolithic farmers and local hunter-gatherers seen nowhere else in Europe.

'Single pixel' vision in fish helps scientists understand how humans can spot tiny details
Recently discovered 'single-pixel vision' in fish could help researchers understand how humans are able to spot tiny details in their environment -- like stars in the sky.

Smart windows that self-illuminate on rainy days
A joint research team from POSTECH and KAIST develops self-powering, color-changing humidity sensors.Applicable to various fields including smart windows, health care and safety management.

New view on how tissues flow in the embryo
Watching and measuring what happens in tissues inside the human embryo is currently not possible, and it's difficult to do in mammalian models. Because humans and the fruit fly Drosophila share so many biological similarities, Columbia Engineering and Syracuse University researchers tackled this problem by focusing on fruit flies. The team reports today that they can predict when the tissue will begin to rapidly flow just by looking at cell shapes in the tissue.

Yes, your dog wants to rescue you
Imagine you're a dog. Your owner is trapped in a box and is crying out for help. Are you aware of his despair? If so, can you set him free? And what's more, do you really want to? That's what Joshua Van Bourg and Clive Wynne wanted to know when they gave dogs the chance to rescue their owners.

A new horizon for vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy
(1) The development of solid state and time-step VCD methods opened a new horizon to reveal the mechanism of chirality amplification from microscopic to supramolecular scales.(2) The authors were selected as PCCP Emerging Investigators of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

A deep dive into better understanding nitrogen impacts
This special issue presents a selection of 13papers that advance our understanding of cascadingconsequences of reactive nitrogen species along theiremission, transport, deposition, and the impacts in theatmosphere.

Argonne researchers create active material out of microscopic spinning particles
Argonne researchers have created a new kind of self-healing active material out of 'microspinners,' which self-assemble under a magnetic field to form a lattice.

Modified Parkinson's drug shows potential in treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severely impairs the quality of life in patients and often leads to various liver complications. Recently, scientists at Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology designed a novel compound that can potentially treat NAFLD by targeting peripheral serotonin, which regulates lipid metabolism in the liver. They achieved this by structurally modifying an existing neurological drug such that it targets peripheral serotonin by minimizing brain penetration.

Two bacteria allow spittlebugs to thrive on low-nutrient meals
A new study examines the symbiotic relationship between two types of bacteria and spittlebugs that helps the insect live on very low-nutrient food.

Researchers track how bacteria purge toxic metals
Cornell researchers combined genetic engineering, single-molecule tracking and protein quantitation to get a closer look at this mechanism and understand how it functions. The knowledge could lead to the development of more effective antibacterial treatments.

PSA screening: Benefit does not outweigh harm
PSA screening: benefit does not outweigh harmSome men benefit from an earlier cancer diagnosis. However, more men are at risk of overdiagnosis and treatment-related complications.

Algorithm quickly simulates a roll of loaded dice
Approach for generating numbers at random may help analyses of complex systems, from Earth's climate to financial markets.

Study finds surge in hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine prescriptions during COVID-19
A new study by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital examines changes in prescription patterns in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Well begun is half done? Skoltech researchers study the recipe for efficient protein synthesis
Skoltech scientists and their colleagues have studied more than 30 thousand variants of genetic sequences encoding two fluorescent proteins in order to determine which characteristics of mRNA and of the first dozen or so codons in it can increase the efficiency of translation. Among other things, they found that rare codons at the beginning of the sequence do not seem to enhance translation, contrary to some hypotheses.

Gold mining with mercury poses health threats for miles downstream
Small-scale gold mining in the Peruvian Amazon poses a health hazard not only to the miners and communities near where mercury is used to extract gold from ore, but also to downstream communities hundreds of kilometers away where people eat mercury-contaminated river fish as part of their diet. Downstream children under 12 with the highest levels of mercury in their bodies were found to have lost IQ points and become anemic.

Heart surgery stalled as COVID-19 spread
In two recent journal articles, Dr. Marc Ruel explores how hospitals worldwide scaled back on heart surgeries as the pandemic hit, and how they can resume those operations in a world still plagued by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Breaking up is hard to do (especially for sex chromosomes)
A team of scientists at the Sloan Kettering Institute has discovered how the X and Y chromosomes find one another, break, and recombine during meiosis even though they have little in common.

Study questions benefits of social networks to disaster response
Faced with a common peril, people delay making decisions that might save lives, fail to alert each other to danger and spread misinformation. Those may sound like behaviors associated with the current pandemic, but they actually surfaced in experiments on how social networks function in emergencies.

Cancer drugs cause large cells that resist treatment; scientist aims to stop it
Fueled by genetic changes due to cancer therapy itself, rogue cells may become very large with twice or quadruple the number of chromosomes found in healthy cells. Dr. Daruka Mahadevan of the Mays Cancer Center, home to UT Health San Antonio MD Anderson, seeks to find drugs that prevent or treat this problem.

Blocking tumor signals can hinder cancer's spread
A University of Pennsylvania-led team used an inhibitor of an enzyme called p38α kinase to suppress the spread of melanoma to the lungs in a mouse model.

CT findings of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children 'often negative'
The newest article in the American Journal of Roentgenology's open-access COVID-19 collection revealed a high frequency (77%) of negative chest CT findings among pediatric patients (n=30; 10 months-18 years) with COVID-19, while also suggesting that bilateral, lower lobe-predominant ground-glass opacities are common in the subset of children with positive CT findings. Consistent with reported symptomatology in children, the authors of this AJR article also observed a correlation between increasing age and increasing severity of findings.

Modelling predicts COVID-19 resurgence if physical distancing relaxed
If physical distancing measures are relaxed too much or too quickly, Ontario could see hospitals overwhelmed with COVID-19 patients as well as exponential growth in deaths, concludes new University of Guelph research.

In planet formation, it's location, location, location
Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope are finding that planets have a tough time forming in the rough-and-tumble central region of the massive, crowded star cluster Westerlund 2. Located 20,000 light-years away, Westerlund 2 is a unique laboratory to study stellar evolutionary processes because it's relatively nearby, quite young, and contains a large stellar population.

Carfilzomib does not improve outcomes in newly diagnosed myeloma compared to bortezomib
The combination of carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) did not improve progression-free survival in patients with newly diagnosed myeloma absent a high-risk disease prognosis, compared with the standard of care -- bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRd). The data from a planned interim analysis for the ENDURANCE (E1A11) randomized phase three trial will be presented at the ASCO 2020 plenary. KRd had more severe cardiac, pulmonary, and renal toxicities. Neuropathy was more common among those receiving VRd.

Researchers find CBD improves arthritis symptoms in dogs
This study shows that in dogs diagnosed with arthritis, CBD treatment significantly improved quality of life as documented by both owner and veterinarian assessments.

'Distance' from the brightest stars is key to preserving primordial discs
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope was used to conduct a three-year study of the crowded, massive and young star cluster Westerlund 2. The research found that the material encircling stars near the cluster's centre is mysteriously devoid of the large, dense clouds of dust that would be expected to become planets in a few million years.

Scientists discover a gene to stay thin
An international team of researchers with the participation of IMBA - Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences - reports the discovery of a thinness gene - ALK - conserved in evolution from flies to mice and importantly in very thin humans. The results are published in the renowned journal Cell.

Surgery and radiation do not extend survival in newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer
Women who present with a new diagnosis of breast cancer that is already in an advanced stage (stage IV) face questions about having surgery and radiation to the tumor in the breast (local therapy). Based on the results of the long-awaited E2108 randomized phase 3 trial at #ASCO20, these women should not be offered surgery and radiation for the primary breast tumor with the expectation of a survival benefit.

 

newsletter


Copyright 2020 Arellon.com. All Rights Reserved.
 Sitemap | Bigcommerce Premium Themes by PSDCenter